Clinical Applications of 4D Flow MR Imaging in Aortic Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease
4D flow MRI allows time-resolved 3D velocity-encoded phase-contrast imaging for 3D visualization and quantification of aortic and intracardiac flow. In this review, we introduce the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI for the visualization of blood flow and quantification of hemodynamic metrics in the setting of aortic valvular disease and CHD, including intracardiac shunt and coronary artery anomaly.
Noriko Oyama-Manabe, Tadao Aikawa, Satonori Tsuneta, Osamu Manabe, "Clinical Applications of 4D Flow MR Imaging in Aortic Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease", Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences, Published Online (2022) https://doi.org/10.2463/mrms.rev.2021-0030.
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